Algorithms have been developed to systematically determine the skeleton of the underlying graph and, then, orient all arrows whose directionality is dictated by the conditional independencies observed. In general this leaves a set of possible causal relations, which should then be tested by analyzing time series data or, preferably, designing appropriately controlled experiments. In contrast with Bayesian Networks, path analysis and its generalization, structural equation modelingserve better to estimate a known causal effect or to test a causal model than to generate causal hypotheses. For nonexperimental data, causal direction can often be inferred if information about time is available.
I want Microsoft Word to die. I hate Microsoft Word with a burning, fiery passion.
Our reasons are, alarmingly, not dissimilar Microsoft Word is a tyrant of the imagination, a petty, unimaginative, inconsistent dictator that is ill-suited to any creative writer's use.
Its pervasive near-monopoly status has brainwashed software developers to such an extent that few can imagine a word processing tool that exists as anything other than as a shallow imitation of the Redmond Behemoth. But what exactly is wrong with it? I've been using word processors and text editors for nearly 30 years.
There was an era before Microsoft Word's dominance when a variety of radically different paradigms for text preparation and formatting competed in an open marketplace of ideas.
One early and particularly effective combination was the idea of a text file, containing embedded commands or macros, that could be edited with a programmer's text editor such as ed or teco or, later, vi or emacs and subsequently fed to a variety of tools: These tools were fast, powerful, elegant, and extremely demanding of the user.
Programs like WordStar led the way, until WordPerfect took the market in the early s by adding the ability to edit two or more files at the same time in a split screen view. Then, in the late s and early s, research groups at MIT and Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center began to develop the tools that fleshed out the graphical user interface of workstations like the Xerox Star and, later, the Apple Lisa and Macintosh and finally the Johnny-come-lately imitator, Microsoft Windows.
An ongoing war broke out between two factions. One faction wanted to take the classic embedded-codes model, and update it to a graphical bitmapped display: But another group wanted to use a far more powerful model: In a style sheet system, units of text -- words, or paragraphs -- are tagged with a style name, which possesses a set of attributes which are applied to the text chunk when it's printed.
Steve Jobs approached Bill Gates to write applications for the new Macintosh system inand Bill agreed. In the end, the decree went out: Word should implement both formatting paradigms.
Even though they're fundamentally incompatible and you can get into a horrible mess by applying simple character formatting to a style-driven document, or vice versa.
Word was in fact broken by design, from the outset -- and it only got worse from there. Over the late s and early s Microsoft grew into a behemoth with a near-monopoly position in the world of software.
One of its tactics became known and feared throughout the industry: If confronted with a successful new type of software, Microsoft would purchase one of the leading companies in the sector and then throw resources at integrating their product into Microsoft's own ecosystem, if necessary dumping it at below cost in order to drive rivals out of business.Maybe you’ve seen them, lingering in curious little rows toward the bottom of the magazine racks at your favorite bookstore.
Above, celebrity-studded glossies promise the . Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. Blaise Pascal (–) Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian.
In mathematics, he was an early pioneer in .
This page lists notable alumni and students of the University of California, lausannecongress2018.com who also served as faculty are listed in bold font, with degree and year.. Notable faculty members are in the article List of UC Berkeley faculty. Ultimately, this Essay argues that the persistent racial biases reflected in the #MeToo movement illustrate precisely why sexual harassment doctrine must employ a reasonable person standard that accounts for complainants’ different intersectional and multidimensional identities.
I wrote not too long ago about the growing levels of emasculation we’re seeing in modern hip-hop, despite it generally being credited as part of a highly masculine culture.
For all of the posing and machismo we hear about, there is an inordinate amount of feminine whining and feminine styling among this culture’s male adherents.