Subsequent events caused by the revolution include the Napoleonic warsthe restoration of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape. The longer term European consequences include the counter-enlightenment and romantic movement in Germany which arose in reaction to the imposition of French rationalist culture. This was accompanied by the reunification of Germany as a defensive measure against a future Napoleon. French revolutionary ideas also inspired and influenced Marxist revolutionary movements such as the Bolsheviks in Russia who followed the pattern established in France of large scale executions of the enemies of the people by impersonal government organs.
Speech to the National Convention- February 5, Maximilian Robespierre Between aurlFrance experienced the most radical phase of the revolution, known as the Reign of Terror.
During this period France was essentially ruled by the twelve-member Committee of Public Safety elected by the National Convention every month. The outstanding member of this committee was Maximilian Robespierrea provincial lawyer who rose within the Jacobin Club and gained a reputation for incorruptibility and superb oratory.
Historians have argued over Robespierre, some singling him out as a bloodthirsty individual with the major responsibility for the executions during the Reign of Terror, others seeing him as a sincere, idealistic, effective revolutionary leader called to the fore by events of the time.
In the following speech to the National Convention on February 5,Robespierre defines the revolution and justifies extreme actions, including terror, in its defense. What Robespierre means when he argues that terror flows from virtue; how the use of terror relates to the essence of the revolution; how this speech might be interpreted as an Enlightenment attack on the Ancien Regime carried to its logical conclusion.
It is time to mark clearly the aim of the Revolution and the end toward which we wish to move; it is time to take stock of ourselves, of the obstacles which we still face, and of the means which we ought to adopt to attain our objectives What is the goal for which we strive?
A peaceful enjoyment of liberty and equality, the rule of that eternal justice whose laws are engraved, not upon marble or stone, but in the hearts of all men. In our country we wish to substitute morality for egotism, probity for honor, principles for conventions, duties for etiquette, the empire of reason for the tyranny of customs, contempt for vice for contempt for misfortune, pride for insolence, the love of honor for the love of money.
We wish in a word to fulfill the requirements of nature, to accomplish the destiny of mankind, to make good the promises of philosophy. That is our ambition; that is our aim. What kind of government can realize these marvels?
Only a democratic government But to found and to consolidate among us this democracy, to realize the peaceable rule of constitutional laws, it is necessary to conclude the war of liberty against tyranny and to pass successfully through the storms of revolution.
Such is the aim of the revolutionary system which you have set up Now what is the fundamental principle of democratic, or popular government- that is to say, the essential mainspring upon which it depends and which makes it function?
I mean public virtue. The splendor of the goal of the French Revolution is simultaneously the source of our strength and of our weakness: It is necessary to stifle the domestic and foreign enemies of the Republic or perish with them.
Now in these circumstances, the first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.
If the basis of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue and terror: Terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice; it flows, then, from virtue.
Robespierre and Revolutionary Government In its time of troubles, the National Convention, under the direction of the Committee of Public Safety, instituted a Reign of Terror to preserve the Revolution from its internal enemies. Robespierre, Speech on Revolutionary Government The theory of revolutionary government is as new as the Revolution that created it.
It is as pointless to seek its origins in the books of the political theorists, who failed to foresee this revolution, as in the laws of the tyrants, who are happy enough to abuse their exercise of authority without seeking out its legal justification.The French Revolution (–) was a period of ideological, political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French polity, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of republicanism, citizenship, and rights.
In the old French system the 1st Estate was the nobility, the 2nd Estate was the Bourgeoisie (i.e. middle class professionals and business people) and the 3rd Estate was the peasants (i.e.
the workers). Ship - History of ships: Surviving clay tablets and containers record the use of waterborne vessels as early as bce.
Boats are still vital aids to movement, even those little changed in form during that 6,year history. The very fact that boats may be quite easily identified in illustrations of great antiquity shows how slow and continuous had been this evolution until just years ago.
What Is the Third Estate? (French: Qu'est-ce que le tiers-état?) is a political pamphlet written in January , shortly before the outbreak of the French Revolution, by the French thinker and clergyman Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (–).
Nov 09, · Watch video · The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in and ended in the late s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte.
During this period, French citizens. Before the revolution, French society was divided into three estates or orders: the First Estate (clergy), Second Estate (nobility) and Third Estate (commoners). With around 27 million people or 98 percent of the population, the Third Estate was the largest of the three by far.