Churchill The Gospel of Thomas is arguably the most important writing known to man today.
Introduction In recent years, there has been growing interest in meaning research. In addition to the numerous journal articles on meaning e. However, in spite of the central role of meaning, we still do not have a comprehensive theoretical framework that is capable of incorporating most of the empirical findings on meaning research and logotherapy Frankl, There are already two edited volumes by Alexander Batthyany and associateson research relevant to logotherapy, but these publications have received scant attention from positive psychology researchers.
Although both logotherapy and positive psychology are concerned with how to live a meaningful life, they seem to function in parallel universes, divided by vast differences in language, worldviews and values.
Such a divide makes integration between logotherapy and positive psychology a daunting task. Though positive psychologists do make an occasional reference to Frankl in connection with meaning research e. Likewise, logotherapists can benefit from learning more about the empirical findings of positive psychology research on meaning.
Firstly, he was the first significant pioneer in restoring spirituality and meaning to psychotherapy.
This is particularly important in an increasingly dehumanized, technological culture. Secondly, he was the first psychotherapist who made the will to meaning, self-transcendence and responsibility the primary therapeutic objectives, which have been largely ignored by mainstream psychotherapists.
Thirdly, I believe that his positive message will complement positive psychology in restoring hope and purpose to all those who are struggling in the negative territories of life. Frankl was unique in that he developed a lofty and noble view of what is right and good with human beings in spite of his immense suffering in Nazi concentration camps.
His personal experiences lent credence to the basic tenets of logotherapy, which were tested and found valid even amid all the dark forces in human existence. The nature of his approach differs from positive psychology because Frankl embraced both the bright and dark sides of human existence and believed that inevitable human suffering could contribute to human achievement and meaning in life Frankl, While he was still a medical student, he applied logotherapy to help high school students struggling with suicidal ideation in Vienna, because of the high suicide rate of this demographic.
At the time of his medical school graduation, he had been able to reduce this suicide rate to zero, thus he was able to establish a reputation for his work in Vienna Batthyany, The dehumanization of individuals as machines resulted in many psychological and social problems such as boredom, alienation, addiction and abuse.
Marshall, personal communication, February 21, Frankl was able to put the basic tenets of logotherapy to empirical test through his experiences at the Nazi concentration camps. Logotherapy became widely accepted during an era of meaning crisis caused by the Second World War and the collapse of traditional values Fabry, ; Graber, According to Frankl, to survive the dehumanization of industrialization and the Nazi concentration camps required a defiant human spirit.
An example of such defiance was demonstrated in the Polish rebellion and the French resistance, in which many freedom fighters gave their lives. Although they did not survive physically, their moral courage and defiant human spirit had the survival value of empowering others to rise above suffering and pursue a cause greater than themselves.
They exercised their freedom of will; they chose to stand up and fight rather than be slaughtered like helpless animals. They had found something worth fighting and dying for; in so doing, they filled their lives with meaning.
He provides us with a spiritually oriented blueprint for a better future for humanity. Such empirical support, although historical and phenomenological in nature, is no less valid than a typical, artificial experimental manipulation in social psychology research.
Furthermore, his basic ideas resonate with the age-old wisdoms of Taoism and Stoicism. Given the increasing evidence of the lack of replicability of some social psychology findings e. In spite of this cautionary note, there is still value in rigorous research that is based on well-developed measurement instruments and clearly defined and valid constructs.
The meaning-seeking model that I have developed here is intended to facilitate such empirical research. The Positive Bias of Positive Psychology In contrast to logotherapy, contemporary positive psychology, launched in by Martin Seligman, was developed during a time of peace and prosperity.
Positive psychology initially focused only on the bright side of human existence; I called it positive psychology 1.
The current stance of positive psychology 2.An important teaching in the Gospel of Thomas restores a foundational concept that the removal of which, has alienated and disenfranchised the Christian world from the spiritual meaning of the Gospels -- which alienation has inhibited their entrance into the Kingdom they seek.
Abstract. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy to the 21st century, especially to positive psychologists interested in . This was a much needed mindset shift in a time of change and challenge. If you feel as if all is out of control and especially out of your control, read any (better yet, all) of Katie's books and you'll realize that you have power you didn't realize.
The official organization founded in by Paramahansa Yogananda to teach scientific methods of meditation and principles of spiritual living that lead to direct God realization.
For more than 85 years, Self-Realization Fellowship (SRF) has been dedicated to carrying on the spiritual and humanitarian work of its founder, Paramahansa Yogananda, widely revered as the father of Yoga in the West.
Abstract. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy to the 21st century, especially to positive psychologists interested in meaning research and applications.
This was a much needed mindset shift in a time of change and challenge. If you feel as if all is out of control and especially out of your control, read any (better yet, all) of Katie's books and you'll realize that you have power you didn't realize.