The origin of psychometrics has connections to the related field of psychophysics. Charles Spearmana pioneer in psychometrics who developed approaches to the measurement of intelligence, studied under Wilhelm Wundt and was trained in psychophysics.
Definitions have ranged from general to specific and from quantitative to qualitative. Some researchers have concentrated their efforts on defining job performance in terms of outcomes; others have examined job behaviors; still others have studied personal traits such as conscientiousness or leadership orientation as correlates of successful performance.
The more general, qualitative descriptions tend to be used for jobs that are complex and multifaceted like those at managerial levels, while quantitative descriptions are used frequently to describe highly proceduralized jobs for which employee actions can be measured and the resulting outcomes often quantified.
The principal purpose of this research has been to enhance employee performance via better selection, placement, and retention decisionsunder the assumption that cumulative individual performance will influence organizational performance.
When considering measures of individual job performance, there is a tendency in the literature to characterize some measures as objective and others as subjective. We believe this to be a false distinction that may create too much confidence in the former and an unjustified suspicion about the latter.
Measurement of performance in all jobs, no matter how structured and routinized they are, depends on external judgment about what the important dimensions of the job are and where the individual's performance falls on each dimension.
Our discussion in this chapter avoids the artificial distinctions of objective and subjective and instead focuses on the role of human judgment in the performance appraisal process. Initially, applied psychologists were optimistic about their ability to identify and measure job performance.
Job analyses were used as the basis for constructing selection tests, for developing training programs, and for determining the strengths and weaknesses of employees. However, many of the results were disappointing and, as experience was gained, researchers began to realize that describing the constituent dimensions of a job and understanding its performance requirements was not a straightforward task.
Definition, Measurement, and Application. Evaluating Performance Appraisal and Merit Pay. The National Academies Press.
Thus, in even the simplest of jobs many elements of "job performance" are not easily isolated or directly observable. It is also clear to social scientists that the definition of what constitutes skill or successful work behavior is contingent and subject to frequent redefinition.
In any appraisal system, the performance factors rated depend on the approach taken to job analysis, i. There is evidence that different expert analysis and different analytic methods will result in different judgments about job skills England and Dunn, Furthermore, the evaluation of job performance is subject to social and organizational influences.
In elucidation of this point, Spenner has identified several theoretical propositions concerning the social definition of skill or of what is considered effective job behavior. For example, scholars in the constructionist school argue that what is defined as skilled behavior is influenced by interested parties, such as managers, unions, and professions.
Ultimately, what constitutes good and poor performance depends on organizational context. The armed forces, for example, place a great deal of importance on performance factors like "military bearing.
In order to capture some of this complexity, Landy and Farr propose that descriptions of the performance construct for purposes of appraisal should include job behavior, situational factors that influence or interact with behavior, and job outcomes.
Dimensions of Job Performance Applied psychologists have used job analysis as a primary means for understanding the dimensions of job performance McCormick, There have been a number of approaches to job analysis over the years, including the job element method Clark and Primoff,the critical incident method Flanagan, ; Latham et al.
Air Force task inventory approach Christal,and those methods that rely on structured questionnaires such as the Position Analysis Questionnaire McCormick et al. All of these methods share certain assumptions about good job analysis practices and all are based on a variety of empirical sources of information, including surveys of task performance, systematic observations, interviews with incumbents and their supervisors, review of job-related documentation, and self-report diaries.
The results are usually detailed descriptions of job tasks, personal attributes and behaviors, or both. One of the more traditional methods used to describe job performance is Page 50 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This method involves obtaining reports from qualified observers of exceptionally good and poor behavior used to accomplish critical parts of a job.
The resulting examples of effective and ineffective behavior are used as the basis for developing behaviorally based scales for performance appraisal purposes.in responding associated with general item characteristics such as direction of wording and level of social desirability—features distinct from item content (Bentler, Jackson, & Messick, , ).
This study aims at exploring the convergent and incremental value of two measures of protective mechanisms: The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS) in relation to outcomes of psychopathology (anxiety and depression evaluated with the HSCL).
“The Psychometric and Empirical Properties of Measures of Risk Preferences.” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 54(3): Jonathan Beauchamp. “Genetic Evidence for Natural Selection in Humans in the Contemporary Variants Associated with Subjective Well-Being, Depressive Symptoms, and Neuroticism Identified.
Outcome questionnaires are increasingly used in the current medical practice. Patient reported outcomes serve as an essential and perhaps more relevant means for assessing patients’ response to treatment than clinical measures alone.
FSBPT Guide to Testing Accommodations July 4 1. The term ˝substantially limits ˛ shall be construed broadly in favor of expansive coverage, to the maximum extent permitted by the terms of . Essential psychometric properties for outcome tools will be reviewed, including reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change.
The session will also focus on the process of developing and validating new tools for autism outcome assessment, and will present recent research findings related to .