It has been argued that leaders are born with traits and are not made. This means that the culture, the environment, and the people leaders lived with had nothing to contribute to their leadership. It should however be noted that the Great Man and the Traits theories that share the view that leaders are born but not made are contested against the leaders are made theories of Behavioural and Contingency theories. There are so many definitions associated with leadership.
Hannah Arendt Ideology and terror: Throughout Occidental history, lawless forms of government, such as tyranny, have been regarded as perverted by definition.
Hence, if … the essence of government is defined as lawfulness, and if it is understood that laws are the stabilizing forces in the public affairs of men as indeed it always has been since Plato invoked Zeus, the god of the boundaries, in his Lawsthen the problem of movement of the body politic and the actions of its citizens arises.
Therefore, in all non-totalitarian forms of government, the body politic is in constant motion within set boundaries of a stable political order, although tyranny destroys the public space of political action Arendt In other words, totalitarianism aims to eradicate entirely the human capacity to act as such Arendt For totalitarian rule targets the total life-world of its subjects, which in turn presupposes a world totally conquered by a single totalitarian movement.
This important passage contains several key ideas that need to be carefully unpacked. What totalitarian rule needs to guide the behaviour of its Organisational theory essay is a preparation to fit each of them equally well for the role Organisational theory essay executioner and the role of victim.
This two-sided preparation, the substitute for a principle of action, is the ideology. Individual subjects of totalitarian rule either surrender to the dynamic process of becoming, or they are consumed by it: The qualification is significant, since the automatism of the impersonal and dynamic forces of Nature or History enjoy complete primacy over the individual members of society, who either join the movement or are swept away by it.
This function, rather than the substance of the ideology, distinguishes totalitarian ideologies from their antecedents in the nineteenth century. As we have seen, in the first two parts of Origins Arendt foregrounds the phenomena of race-thinking and class-thinking, both of which were general trends in nineteenth century European thought and politics, whereas only Marxism could lay claim to a respectable philosophical lineage.
Still, both resonated with a substantial body of popular opinion and sentiment since both doctrines derived their potency and persuasive power from actual historical trends. Racism and communism triumphed over competing ideologies both because they reflected dominant currents in society and politics and because they were seized upon as the official ideologies of the most powerful and successful totalitarian movements ibid.: Having discovered the laws of motion of totalitarian ideologies — that is, having mastered the intricacies of totalitarian organisation —, the dictator eliminates all obstacles to the fulfilment of the objective laws of movement.
For the imitation or interpretation of these laws, the totalitarian ruler feels that only one man is required and that all other persons, all other minds as well as wills, are strictly superfluous.
If Arendt regards neither class-thinking nor race-thinking as inherently totalitarian, this is because any ideology or system of ideas, insofar as it is articulated as a definite theoretical or political doctrine or formulated as a party program, is incompatible with totalitarianism. For doctrines and programs, like positive laws, set limits, establish boundaries, and introduce stability ibid.: The key to unlocking this power resides in the totalitarian organisation of society.
Freed of the customary standards of lawful action and verifiable truth claims, totalitarian movements unleash terror in accordance with the imperatives of the ideological reconfiguration of society. All members of society are now the potential targets of a regime of terror that functions independently of both the interests of society and its members Arendt a: The evaluation of interest as an omnipresent force in history, together with the assumption that power is subject to discoverable objective laws, collectively constitute the core of utilitarian doctrines.
Organizational Change Theory Organizational change O'Reilly, Charles a. & Michael L. Tushman. (). The ambidextrous organization. The Harvard Business Review. It is often said that generals are always trying to win the last war, rather than look ahead to what they need to do to succeed in the future. The Theory Of Strategic Human Resource Management Commerce Essay. Human resource management is a system, which concern to manage organization work force (Bateman & Zeithaml, ). The purpose of this study is to explore the link between job satisfaction and organisational performance and to determine if there is an empirically provable relationship between these two variables, and the direction and the intensity of this relationship. Empirical research was conducted on a.
Totalitarian ideologies, on the other hand, aim to transform human nature itself ibid.: The transformation of ideologies into fully fledged totalitarian ideologies is thus a crucial prerequisite of totalitarian rule.
Guided by ideology and goaded by terror, human beings lose their innately human capacity for spontaneity and action, which is to say their capacity for political discourse and the distinctly human capacity for creative and unconstrained thought ibid.: Arendt argues that totalitarian rulers employ a deceptively simple device for transforming ideologies into coercive instruments: This statement might seem self-evident, even trite.
Yet Arendt means by this two very important points. Firstly, she contends that neither Hitler nor Stalin contributed anything of substance to racism and socialism respectively.
Ideological complexity is also an obstacle to the effectiveness of propaganda, which is distinct from ideology and serves as a recruiting device ibid.: Propaganda thus shelters the movement qua proto-totalitarian society from a worldly reality ibid.: Propaganda is thus principally aimed at the non-totalitarian world.
Propaganda thus serves the organisational interests of the movement while ideology facilitates the exercise of terror, which coincides with the reorganisation of society itself. Fabrication rather than followers is the key to the success of totalitarian rule. What is required is a complete absence of the ability to distinguish between fiction and reality ibid.: Henceforth, factuality and reality become a matter of mere opinion, whereas the truth of lies is affirmed by the actualisation of ideological goals.
Many ideologies and political sects arising in the nineteenth century go unmentioned by Arendt.Organisational theory is able to analyse the structure and culture of their organisations, solve the problems and utilize the process of organisational design and make adjustments that helps the organisations to achieve its goals/5(1).
- 1) ORGANISATIONAL THEORY Organisational theory is designed to understand the nature of the organisations.
By which organizations can evaluate its overall business by putting the right structure and operate in different ways. The Impact of Organizational Theory and Organizational Learning on Organizations This essay explores organizational theory, its history and development as an academic principle and its impact on organizations.
The essay will review the works of.
The purpose of this essay is to analysis the two theoretical perspectives of Modern and Post-modern which have different ways of understanding power, control and resistance in organisations.
The essay will focus on the similarities and differences between the theories through the models of social structure in an organization. From the philosophical ontological point of view, the modernist sees the material and social world as consisting of structures that exist, regardless of individual awareness.
To some, organizational theory is a field of study; to others, it is the process of using metaphorical language to describe organizational processes (e.g., McKenna & Wright, ; Morgan, ), or it represents an attempt to determine the best way to organize work organizations.