It also assesses estimates of the long-term costs associated with deployment and the signature wounds of the conflicts, posttraumatic stress disorder PTSDtraumatic brain injury TBIand depression. Costs of those and other injuries can be borne by many individuals beyond the afflicted service member. The chapter presents those assessments based on the current state of knowledge in these areas, which continues to evolve rapidly. The chapter's main findings are the following:
March 30, Some workplaces are far more racially diverse than they were decades ago, but striking disparities still exist. PinIt Instapaper Pocket Email Print Given the proliferation of corporate publications and websites that feature smiling minorities, one might think that the days of stark workplace segregation are long gone.
And while, yes, the American economy is no longer formally segregated, the data clearly show a workforce where minorities remain greatly underrepresented at management and leadership levels and overrepresented in low-wage work.
A study conducted by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, a government agency responsible for enforcing anti-discrimination law, found that only 20 percent of minorities are midlevel managers, despite the fact that they account for 34 percent of the total workforce.
Moreover, only 24 percent are white-collar professionals and 17 percent are executive or senior-level officials. At the highest levels of corporate governance, these numbers are even smaller.
These persistent disparities are embedded in the structure of our economy. Inaccording to the earliest data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, average labor-force participation for African Americans was 60 percent, the majority of whom were employed in low-wage work.
Bythat number had peaked at just 66 percent, and it recently slid to 62 percent, due mostly to the recession.
Likewise, inaverage labor-force participation for Latinos was 60 percent, peaking at nearly 70 percent in and sliding down Military service disparities in employment outcomes essay The numbers are comparable to whites, who have a current participation rate of 66 percent but are more likely to hold higher-income positions.
By contrast, minorities are still concentrated in the lower rungs of the American workforce; 53 percent of laborers, 50 percent of service workers, and 33 percent of office and clerical workers are people of color. This has a domino effect on employment trends, says Algernon Austin, director of the Economic Policy Institute's program on Race, Ethnicity, and the Economy.
In particular, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of required all employers to halt discrimination, and the following year, President Lyndon Johnson issued an executive order requiring federal contractors to take "affirmative action" to end discrimination.
That said, the ambiguity of these directives -- and fairly weak enforcement -- produced little immediate change in employment practices; inaccording to a analysis by Harvard sociologist Frank Dobbin, only 4 percent of employers had established affirmative-action offices and just 20 percent had established affirmative-action policies.
By the mids, however, thanks to a Supreme Court case Griggs v. Duke Power Company and the Equal Employment Opportunity Act oflarge numbers of employers were covered by affirmative-action law.
Byaccording to a study from the Bureau of National Affairs, more than 80 percent of large firms had equal-employment policies.
Unfortunately, as the Reagan Revolution unfolded in the s and conservatives rolled back affirmative-action policies at the regulatory level, employers began downplaying legal compliance and focused instead on "managing" diversity in the workforce, as well as building more-diverse customer bases.
Since then, companies have relied on a variety of methods to draw and retain minority employees. Prominent among them are so-called diversity consultants, who assist companies with recruiting minorities, ensuring their satisfaction, and navigating federal diversity guidelines.
Some do this with workshops and awareness trainings, while others, like the Portland, Oregon-based firm White Men as Full Diversity Partners, work with "majority groups," or white men, to enhance their understanding of diversity and to emphasize the extent to which "whiteness" is as much a category as being black or Hispanic.
The philosophy, says founding partner Michael Welp, is simple: We try to bring white men in to educate other white men about diversity. Still, conscientious measures often have limited gains.
In a study that analyzed a broad array of corporate diversity programs, Dobbin wrote that companies frequently create diversity programs without determining whether they are effective. In Dobbins' study, the training programs were as likely to increase bias as they were to reduce it, and few approaches boosted minority representation.
At a variety of companies, the best programs -- which increased the proportion of black women and men in management positions by 30 percent and 10 percent, respectively -- emphasized organizational responsibility and active recruiting.
As Dobbins wrote, "Structures that embed accountability, authority, and expertise affirmative action plans, diversity committees and task forces, diversity managers and departments are the most effective means of increasing the proportions of white women, black women, and black men in private sector management.
As the corporate sector has struggled to integrate, some argue that the military has done so successfully. The military was, in fact, one of the first U. Though this tremendous shift set an example for companies, minorities are now overrepresented in the nation's armed services and poorly represented in the higher echelons of leadership.
Of that total, 17 percent are African American and 11 percent are Hispanic. In the broader workforce, by contrast, they represent 10 percent and 14 percent of employees, respectively.
Likewise, as in the corporate world, there are also broad disparities in military leadership. Inthere were more thanactive-duty officers, and of those, only 22 percent belonged to a racial minority, according to the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute, an office of the Pentagon responsible for both promoting diversity -- through training and education programs -- and developing cultural sensitivity among existing service members.
A spokesperson from the DEOMI declined to comment on the trend the office collects information but doesn't attempt to provide an explanation. Many officers are groomed by the Reserve Officers' Training Corps ROTC programs and at various military service colleges, which are most accessible to those with first-rate educational resources at the secondary level.
Unfortunately, this tends not to include minorities, who are underrepresented at several service academies. However, through concerted outreach to minority communities, particularly those in inner-city areas, administrators at the Naval Academy were able to increase the number of black students to 9.
Unfortunately, the number of Latino students fell to just a little more than 7 percent. The Air Force Academy was somewhat less successful but still increased its African American population to nearly 8 percent of the class.Health Care Outcomes in States Influenced by Coverage, Disparities.
Health investment contributes to better medical outcomes, but social determinants also play a role. Advancements in Military Technology Military technology is defined as the collection of vehicles, equipment, structures, and communications that are used for warfare.
Warfare has always pushed back technologies boundaries, from . - Military service should be voluntary because of the choices and sacrifices the military forces people to make. As a military child I understand what the military service can do to lifestyles, relationships and individuals.
Jun 25, · In addition to validating the initial findings from the RAND Military Workplace Study published in December , the final results reveal unprecedented detail about the frequency of criminal sexual assault against service members, the nature and context of those assaults, and how they differ for men and women in each branch of service.
The objectives of this study were to determine whether racial disparities in 30/90/day outcomes exist within a universally insured population of military/civilian-dependent EGS patients and ascertain whether differences in outcomes differentially persist in care received at military versus civilian hospitals and among sponsors who are enlisted .
On January 23, , the Pentagon indicated that it would lift its ban on allowing women to serve in combat roles. The announcement comes after a long and .