From the large scale universe to the milky way paper

An international team of astronomers has discovered a titanic structure in the early Universe, just two billion years after the Big Bang. This galaxy proto-supercluster, nicknamed Hyperion, is the largest This galaxy proto-supercluster, nicknamed Hyperion, is the largest and most massive structure yet found at such a remote time and distance.

From the large scale universe to the milky way paper

Its the bubbles of nothing that make it something. However the visible something seems to be all connected throughout the nothing. And past a certain unobservable point it may as well be nothing as we will never see it. Er, so is it the nothing pushing the something apart or is the visible something growing out of the nothing.

Besides who needs superlatives when we can just anthropomorphize it into something our puny rational minds can deal with.

From the large scale universe to the milky way paper

December 19, at 6: December 19, at 8: A brief idea of that is maybe in order. I thought I would give some indication of what that is before getting to the cosmology. This requires some qualitative description of mathematics, and mathematical thinking is healthy if you want to understand physical science.

The core of the idea behind homology can be seen in the difference between a 2 dimensional sphere and a 2-d torus. With the sphere any loop on the surface can be extended into any other loop of any size, and indeed contracted to a point.

Therefore the topological information it contains is zero. The sphere may also be chopped in two with a region of overlap, eg a thickened equator.

These two disks when sutured together recover the sphere. The reason is similar to the fact that a map of the Earth with the North Pole at the center is not able to cover the South Pole.

There is a stereographic projection of the South Pole to infinity. So the stereographic projection has an infinite number of extensions, which is the real numbers.

A discrete version of this is a set of integers. So there are the homology groups or rings for zero dimensional objects in the space which is R or Z reals or integersthe one dimensional elements have no topological information so that is 0, and the two dimensional stuff has again R or Z.

The distinction between R and Z is a technical matter, which I will avoid here. Now consider the torus. We can make a torus from the sphere by removing the antipodal points N and S poles and by identifying the infinitesimal boundaries left behind.

If I remove a point from the torus and expand the hole into a disk and push further until there is no area left I am left with two curves connected at a point. One curve encloses the tube and the other might be seen as the seem line on the inner tube.

You might have to think a bit, but you can convince yourselves of this. I used a bit of something called homotopy theory another approach to topology to illustrate the curves. These homology rings have a basic algebraic property. The first of these is that the boundary of a boundary is zero.

A 2-sphere is the boundary of a 3-ball, but the 2-sphere itself has no boundary. Now think of the torus. So those curves are not the boundary of any space pertinent to the torus. Think of cutting the torus along the curve enclosing the tube. This then constructs a cylinder, but since the boundary of this is really the same curve I can contract this cylinder into a ring.

So there is no actual content to these curves being the boundary of anything in the torus. Yet the boundary operator on these curves is zero.Given its size so early in the history of the universe, Hyperion is expected to evolve into something similar to the immense structures in the local universe such as the superclusters making up the Sloan Great Wall or the Virgo Supercluster that contains our own galaxy, the Milky Way.

These large-scale matter overdensities represented by clusters and superclusters are used as sensitive probes of the presence of dark matter and dark energy at higher redshifts and shed light on how structure might form in the universe.

Once the view zooms out to show both the Sun and the center of the Milky Way, a white line is shown connecting the two, to give a sense of the scale of the Milky Way.

At any time you can click and drag the simulation to rotate it manually. Milky Way: Galaxy – collection of stellar and interstellar matter, isolated Large-Scale Universe (Chps.

) Carta de Einstein a Su Hija. Uploaded by. José Manuel Fajardo Salinas. Occult Cosmology 7. Uploaded by. monalisaXL. Resonance Magazine, March Uploaded by. Kiran Kumar Kuppa.

From the large scale universe to the milky way paper

The Milky Way Large-Scale Universe to The Milky Way The Birth of Modern Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the structure and evolution of the universe (Bennett, Donahue, Schneider, & Voit, ). Edwin Hubble is often credited with the birth of modern cosmology. The age of the universe is about billion years.

The diameter of the observable universe is estimated at about 28 billion parsecs (93 billion light-years). As a reminder, a light-year is a unit of length equal to just under 10 trillion kilometres (or about 6 trillion miles).

Putting the Size of the Observable Universe in Perspective «TwistedSifter