In the perspective of the history of art,  artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind:
Download this page in PDF format A figure long obscured by the mists of history, American soldier and trader John Cleves Symmes enjoyed his moment of fame—and marked his place in the venerable rolls of nineteenth-century eccentrics—on 10 April On that day he mailed out from St. I declare the earth is hollow, and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentrick spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees; I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking.
Of Ohio, Late Captain of Infantry. My terms are the patronage of this and the new worlds. I dedicate my labours to my Wife and her ten Children.
I select Doctor S. Davy, and Baron Alex. I ask one hundred brave companions, well equipped, to start from Siberia in the fall season, with Reindeer and sleighs, on the ice of the frozen sea: I engage we find a warm and rich land, stocked with thrifty vegetables and animals if not men, on reaching one degree northward of latitude 82; we will return in the succeeding spring.
Symmes wisely attached to his appeal a certificate attesting to his mental soundness. Unfortunately, aside from a few letters to newspapers and some lecture notes that he referred to collectively as his memoirs, Symmes never published any comprehensive account of his hollow-earth theories.
Like a modern-day Socrates, he left that task to an admiring student while he hit the public lecture circuit. The extraordinary breadth and diversity of the eighty-plus papers Halley published in the Philosophical Transactions PThowever, signal a prodigious intellectual fertility.
Where is the second set of poles located, and how do they operate reciprocally with the North and South Poles to influence the compass in such extraordinary ways? The earth is structured as a globe-within-a-globe, Halley proposes, both moving together in the same diurnal rotation but at slightly different velocities.
A liquid or hydraulic substance separates the spheres, enabling their divergent axial motions: Halley outlines four possible objections to his hollow-earth theory and addresses each individually. In this analogy—to which Symmes himself was to turn in when first contemplating the existence of a hollow earth—Halley appeals to the comparatively recent observations of Saturn made by Christiaan Huygens and Giovanni Cassini between the s and s, which determined that the sixth planet is surrounded by a thin, flat ring composed of multiple smaller rings separated by gaps.
Which leaves the fourth and, for Halley and his contemporaries, the most consequential of concerns: What benefit or avail could a hollow earth have for terrestrial inhabitants who are insensible of it and whose felicity and health appear to be wholly independent of it?
In short, for what or whom was it designed? As the corporeal expression of divine intelligence, earth testifies in every detail of its structure to the expedience of providential design: Halley speaks at some length, therefore, about the numinous instrumentality of inner space.
Another Argument favouring this Hypothesis is drawn from a Proposition of … Mr. Newton, where he determines the force wherewith the Moon moves the Sea in producing the Tides. Now if the Moon be more solid than the Earth as 9 to 5, why may we not reasonably suppose the Moon, being a small Body and a Secondary Planet, to be solid Earth, Water, and Stone, and this Globe to consist of the same Materials, only four ninths thereof to be Cavity, within and between the internal Spheres: Such a fantastic suggestion can be entertained if we inquire further into the nature of the fluid or ether that separates the inner globe or, now, globes from the outer, an as-yet unknown, magnetically-charged medium that may well produce its own vivifying light: To those that shall enquire of what use these included Globes can be, it must be allowed, that they can be of very little service to the Inhabitants of this outward World.
Why may not we rather suppose that the exceeding small quantity of solid Matter in respect of the fluid Ether, is so disposed by the Almighty Wisdom as to yield as great a Surface for the use of living Creatures as can consist with the conveniency and security of the whole?
That supposed the Earth to be concave, with a lesser Globe included, in order to make that inner Globe capable of being inhabited, there might not improbably be contained some luminous Medium between the Balls, so as to make a perpetual Day below.
And if such a Medium should be thus inclosed within us; what should hinder but we may be allowed to suppose that some parts of this lucid Substance may, on very rare and extraordinary Occasions, transude through and penetrate the Cortex of our Earth?
He never invests the yolky interior with an animating principle: But this ornately-conceived volcanic world is anything but livable. In contrast Halley, who would have been familiar with these models, was unique for grounding his theory of a multi-sphered hollow earth in Newtonian physics and for making it habitable.A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets.
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Group 7 Essay: the significance of the decision-making process by the “human element” in the workplace. The human element in the workplace – behaviors, actions and decisions – can affect risk and impact workplace safety.
Risk is the potential for something to go wrong or the potential for someone to sustain an injury.
When people are involved, . Elements of an Essay. Created in by Gordon Harvey, Assistant Director, Harvard Expository Writing Program. Edited in by Dr. Elizabeth S. Taylor, Senior Lecturer, Nonfiction Writing Program, Department of English, Brown University.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic.
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The Culturalization of Politics Why are today so many problems perceived as problems of intolerance, not as problems of inequality, exploitation, injustice?