We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between built environments e. We performed a 2-step inclusion protocol to identify empirical articles examining any form of built environment and any form of PA or obesity rate as the outcome. We extracted data from included abstracts for analysis by using a standard code sheet developed for this study. Of included articles,
A Technical Review of the Interactions Between Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Quality 2nd Edition Decisions about how and where we build our communities have significant impacts on the natural environment and on human health. Cities, regions, states, and the private sector need information about the environmental effects of their land use and transportation decisions to mitigate growth-related environmental impacts and to improve community quality of life and human health.
Since then, research has continued to clarify and better explain these connections. To capture this research, EPA revised and updated the report inincorporating key findings from hundreds of studies.
The second edition of Our Built and Natural Environments: Discusses the status of and trends in land use, development, and transportation and their environmental implications. While the population roughly doubled between and U. Census Bureauvehicle travel during this same period increased nearly sixfold Federal Highway Administration and However, evidence suggests that the growth of vehicle travel might be slowing in recent years.
Virtually every metropolitan region in the United States has expanded substantially in land area since —including regions that lost population during that time U. Articulates the current understanding of the relationship between the built environment and the quality of air, water, land resources, habitat, and human health.
For nearly all plants and animals, species diversity declines with increases in the amount of impervious surface, road density, time since development, human population density, and building density Pickett et al.
Development in watersheds reduces the quantity, quality, and diversity of stream habitat for aquatic life Booth and Bledsoe As water is polluted and degraded, it can become unfit for drinking, swimming, fishing, and other uses.
More than 38 percent of national carbon monoxide emissions and 38 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions come from highway vehicles. Stationary sources like power plants that provide energy to homes, offices, and industries are also major sources of pollution EPA Greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector increased 19 percent between anddue primarily to the increase in vehicle travel but partially offset by a slight increase in average fuel economy as older vehicles were removed from the roads EPA Car crashes are the third leading cause of death in terms of years of life lost given the young age of so many car crash victims and the number of years they would have been expected to live if they had not died in a car crash.
Only cancer and heart disease are responsible for more years of life lost Subramanian Provides evidence that certain kinds of land use and transportation strategies can reduce the environmental and human health impacts of development.
Development in and adjacent to already-developed areas can help protect natural resources like wetlands, streams, coastlines, and critical habitat. Residents of transit-oriented developments are two to five times more likely to use transit for commuting and non-work trips than others living in the same region Arrington and Cervero While there is considerable evidence on the impact of specific design features on problems associated with dementia, the link between the quality of the built environment and quality of life of people with dementia is largely unexplored.
Correlation between Productions of Built Environment, Human Activities, and Change of Urban Development Select one of the major actors involved in the production of the built environment (i.e., speculators, real-estate agents, financial institutions, government, etc.) and, with reference to Hong Kong, to illustrate their role in urban change.
The built environment- or how and where we build housing, schools or commercial ventures, as well as roads, sidewalks, or bike lanes- has an impact on population health. The built environment significantly affects the public’s health.
This was most obvious when infectious disease was the primary public health threat during the industrial revolution; unsanitary conditions and overcrowded urban areas facilitated the spread of infection.
Which of the following analyses best summarizes the relationship between the built environment and the natural environment? A. The built environment has an impact on the natural environment. B. The natural environment has an impact on the built environment. C. The built and natural environments have impacts on each other.
D.4/4(6). Correlation analysis between traffic flow and built environment The correlation analysis in this part includes two objects, i.e.
the intersections and roads. To study the relationship between the intersection traf-fic flow and the built environment, the aforementioned several factors were first analyzed in the context of the in-tersections.