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The Logic of Pseudo-Operations: Lessons from the Rhodesian Bush War By: Xander Causwell, Columnist Photo by: Pseudo-operations constitute a set of tactics government-controlled paramilitary units use to infiltrate insurgent-controlled territory and networks by imitating the actions of insurgent groups.
Pseudo-units may damage infrastructure, set fire to farmlands, or commit general acts of violence while disguised as insurgents. These actions often have one of two primary objectives: Pseudo-operators thereby strive to alienate insurgents from the non-combatant population and gain human intelligence HUMINT on insurgent safe havens.
The ways in which the Selous Scouts, as well as a handful of other governments throughout the twentieth century, executed this strategy illustrates how well pseudo-operations can serve the HUMINT aspect of insurgency wars.
Challenges to Counterinsurgency Intelligence Insurgent groups strive to deny state intelligence collection efforts by operating out of remote safe-havens, maintaining near-impenetrable organizational structures, and integrating seamlessly into non-combatant populations.
Counterinsurgency is inherently HUMINT-intensive, and the remoteness of insurgent camps exacerbates efforts to penetrate guerrilla strongholds. Penetrating insurgent networks can reveal camp locations, which is why insurgent organizations take steps to harden those networks against penetration.
For example, various insurgent leaders have sought to deter defection or betrayal through hierarchical system of sacrifice and reward. Gaining the intelligence necessary to annihilate an insurgency requires a HUMINT regime capable of overcoming these challenges.
Although the Scouts conducted a series of violent direct actions against insurgent camps, their main role throughout the war was to gather intelligence on those camps and alienate the rebels from the non-combatant population.
Even those external camps, however, were covertly raided by the Scouts. Daly explains that their members were trained to be resourceful trackers, capable of operating in insurgent-held territory without needing to be resupplied from their home base.
Typically, the Scouts were deployed to hunt and ambush active insurgents in the bush. While captured insurgents were treated humanely during interrogations, they were promptly made aware of their options: Contemporary counterinsurgency campaigns must overcome the same broad challenges facing HUMINT-intensive intelligence collection.
The Scouts and their predecessors developed a strategic answer to those challenges. Furthermore, modern social network analysis SNA techniques offer the potential to amplify the HUMINT collection efficiency of pseudo-operations against both insurgent and terrorist groups.
If SNA allows security forces to reliably map insurgent networks, then pseudo-operators can target key individuals in that network to capture and turn more efficiently. Alternately, SNA can illuminate crucial connections in the network that pseudo-operators can work to disrupt, thereby disintegrating the insurgencies.Description This book is an accessible introduction to quantitative data analysis, concentrating on the key issues facing those new to research, such as how to decide which statistical procedure is suitable, and how to interpret the subsequent results.
of the United Nations as a practical report on issues of integration especially as they policy-relevant analysis based on statistical research. One should also bear in mind that (56 million) accounting for % of Europe’s population, while the largest group as a percentage of population is in Australia (% equal to million.
Despite falling crime rates noted in a Pew Research Center analysis in May, the U.S. federal and state prison population has risen from , prisoners in to a high of million prisoners in , before declining slightly in the past three years. Jun 30, · Culture White House says data can help fix America's overcrowded jails.
Obama's latest initiative will help to direct low-level offenders and people with mental issues out of the jail system. Although the average American consumes roughly the same amount of energy as 30 years ago, the U.S.
population has increased over 30%.
This has led to total U.S. energy consumption rising 25%. 5 At the current population growth rate, the U.S. population will double in the next years. World Population by Country October updated world population estimates and projections by country show that the world population is projected to grow from billion in to billion by , an increase of billion (%).